Diamond is a gemstone composed of pure crystallized carbon. It is characterized by being the hardest mineral (index 10 on the Mohs hardness scale) and the best heat conductor. The word diamond comes from the Greek word “Adamas” meaning unconquerable, referring to its extreme hardness.

The quality of a diamond depends on the combination of four features known as 4C’s (Clarity, Colour, Cut & Carat) .

 

Clarity

Most diamonds usually have “birthmarks” which are known as “inclusions”. They are natural imperfections that can affect their quality. The purity of a diamond influences the amount and size of inclusions in the stone.

Gemologists classify imperfections or inclusions of diamonds in several ranges: FL, IF – VVS1, VVS2 – VS1, VS2 – SI, SI2 – P1, P2, P3.

·       FL, IF: Flawless

The clarity of this type of diamond is untainted. No external and internal imperfections. They are very rare diamonds. (Flawless / Internally Flawless).

·       VVS1, VVS2: Minimum Inclusions.

It is very difficult to see the imperfections with a 10x magnification. Excellent quality diamond. (Very Very Slightly Included).

·       VS1, VS2: Very small inclusions

Inclusions and detectable labels under 10x magnification, however, it is minor imperfections that the eye can not see. It is one of the most desirable qualities for its value. (Very Slightly Included).

·       SI, SI2: Inclusions visible under 10x magnification

Inclusions and easily discernible marks under 10x magnification and in some cases may also be visible without 10x magnification. (Slightly Included).

·       P1, P2, P3: Inclusions visible without 10x magnification

Inclusions and notorious and obvious marks under 10x magnification and usually also visible to the naked eye. These imperfections can have a negative impact on transparency and brilliance of the diamond. These diamonds are of poorer quality. (Imperfect, Included).

diamond-clarity-scale

Colour

The color of diamonds refers to the absence of color. It is one of the most important factors. If it is white (transparent), it is the most beautiful and rare. Diamonds may be a color grade from D (colorless) to a Z (yellowish, brown, smoked) color.

Color classification of diamonds.

·       D: Colorless Diamond 100%.

Diamonds graded D color are extremely rare and very high price. This is the highest level of color that a diamond can receive.

·       F/E: Colorless diamond.

Colorless. Exceptionally transparent. It is extremely difficult to find traits of color in a diamond rated E or F. These rare and high-priced diamonds.

·       H/G. Almost colorless diamond.

Almost Colourless. The color is difficult to detect unless you compare diamonds with higher degrees of color. The value you presenting this range is suitable. For this reason diamonds this range are often the most used in jewelry.

·       J/I. Almost colorless.

The color in these diamonds is slightly visible. The slight amount of color is imperceptible to the naked eye once the diamond has been mounted.

·       M/K. Perceptible Color

At first glance, these diamonds in the human eye could already present a yellow color.

·       Z/N. Perceptible color.

Light yellow or very light. The color is appreciated. Low quality diamonds are already having a color accent and not quite up to the Fancy (natural color diamonds, which does not affect the brightness and purity and are appreciated) quality.

 

Cut

Cut is another important characteristic of a diamond, it refers to the proportions, symmetry and polish of the gem, in the appearance of the stone. The size of a diamond determines how light behaves, and therefore its brightness or sparkle. Diamonds with a good size reflect as much light as possible.

Types size as symmetry and polish: Excellent – Very Good – Good – Fair – Poor.

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Diamond has the correct proportions (ideal cut) light will be reflected in the center of the diamond in a perfect way. Shallow (short canopy), light escaped through the bottom of the diamond. Deep (long flag), light escaped from the sides of the diamond.

 

Diamond’s anatomy

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Diameter

The width of the diamond measured by the girdle.

Depth

Height of a gemstone measured from the table to the cylinder head.

Table

The upper side and the largest of a gem.

Crown

The upper extending from the girdle to the table.

Girdle

The narrow band around the diamond.

Pavilion

Bottom of a diamond, extending from the girdle to the cylinder head.

Butt

The bottom tip of the diamond.

 

The term ‘cut’ also defines the shape of a diamond. The ways that go beyond the cut of standard round brilliant are called fancy cuts. The best known are the following:

Most popular cuts:

diamondshapes

Carat

A carat is the unit of weight used to weigh diamonds and other gems stones. The term carat is derived from the Greek word keration, meaning carob seeds. In the Mediterranean, carob seeds were used for centuries to measure the weight of different goods. This is because carob seeds are uniform in size and weight.

In the early 20th century, the carat was standardized in relation to the metric system and adopted internationally: 1 carat (1ct) is approximately 0.20 grams, 01.05 grams, or 0.007 ounces. Small diamond also can be measured in points weight.

One carat equals 100 points.

A diamond weight increases much faster than it increases in diameter. The relationship between the carat weight and the value of the diamond can be surprising. The higher the carat weight, the more expensive it will be. For this reason, a 2-carat diamond does not cost twice, but three times, more that a 1 carat diamond.

Finally, the weight of a diamond also has a symbolic component. Although the visual difference between a diamond of 0.98 carats and 1.01 carats one is difficult to assess, the price of the latter will always be considerably higher. This price difference is that some weights are considered “magic sizes” as a carat, a carat and a half, etc.

 

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