The name sapphire comes from the Latin “sapphirus”.
Today we call sapphire to all non-red corundum quality gem. The most common sapphire and most appreciated is intense blue, but there are many other sapphires colors, pink, green, yellow, orange, white, etc.
It is said that the sapphire is the blue sister of Ruby, both belong to the family of corundum, red is known as ruby and sapphire other colors like. The hardness of corundum is just below the diamond with a 9 on the Mohs scale.
The main sapphires mines are in Kashmir (cashmere sapphire blue velvet and the most appreciated) and Myanmar (formerly Burma, high quality). Sapphires are also produced in Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Australia, Cambodia, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, China, India, Vietnam, Madagascar and the United States.
The quality of a sapphire is mainly governed by the intensity of its color. They usually have fewer inclusions than rubies and emeralds. Sapphire’s value depends on its size, color and transparency. The geographical origin of a sapphire explains the big price difference between the different qualities. The most valuable are genuine Kashmir stones. Burmese sapphires are highly valued, and then come the sapphires from Ceylon.